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Bobby Rush is a former Black Panther and current Baptist minister, a hidebound urban Democrat, and an opponent of zero-tolerance laws regarding illegal immigration. In short, he's perfect for his district. Esquire endorses: Rush. It'd be easy to make negative assumptions about what Jesse Jackson's son would be like as a politician. But Jackson has become an impressive member of Congress, keenly attuned to the needs of middle-class Americans, whatever the color of their skin. Esquire endorses: Jackson. Dan Lipinski's father held this seat until , then essentially handed it to his son.

Dan carries on the family traditions, supporting local trades and transportation projects. Esquire endorses: Lipinski. Luis Gutierrez, sharp-tongued and egotistical, offended many party leaders as a freshman; he now finds himself politically hamstrung. A solid opponent would earn an endorsement, but Ann Melichar isn't one. Esquire endorses: Gutierrez. Rahm Emanuel is without doubt the smartest strategist the Democrats have, tough and quick.

Even the Republicans genuflect. Esquire endorses: Emanuel. Redoubtable Republican Henry Hyde, a congressman since , is retiring. His replacement will be either a an unquestioning supporter of the administration or b someone who experienced its failures firsthand, Iraq-war veteran Tammy Duckworth. Esquire endorses: Duckworth.

A moral man personally acquainted with the immoralities of poverty, Danny Davis argues thoughtfully and eloquently in support of efforts to reduce it. How'd she do it? By promising to take a moderate stance on most issues and defend the interests of her constituents--both of which she has done. Esquire endorses: Bean. In a political environment focused on the uses and abuses of bombs, Jan Schakowsky has focused on something closer to home: children's toys and their safety, or lack thereof.

Which, in its way, is pretty darn commendable. Esquire endorses: Schakowsky. When a Republican candidate runs against an openly gay Democrat and still earns the endorsement of the Human Rights Campaign, the Sierra Club, and Planned Parenthood, as incumbent Kirk did in , it speaks volumes about his independence. Esquire endorses: Kirk. Jerry Weller gained favor with the GOP establishment by working behind the scenes in support of Dennis Hastert's bid for control of the House. That's one way to secure your job; the other way, by actually working hard for your district, is not Weller's style.

Esquire endorses: Pavich. Costello's never been convicted on corruption charges, but in his business partner was--and Costello was named as an unindicted coconspirator. He's a questionable character and an unimpressive representative. Esquire endorses: Write-in candidate, please. A moderate Republican with a liberal voting record on social issues and an intelligent approach to education policy supporting financial literacy in a nation with a declining savings rate is a good idea , Biggert is someone this country needs. Esquire endorses: Biggert. Centrist Republican Tim Johnson makes a particular point of advocating for the needs of his constituents, a mixed bunch of moderates from both parties.

Unafraid to oppose the GOP establishment, he's also tough in a more basic way, once delivering a speech after a car accident despite a punctured lung. On his Web site, Don Manzullo flaunts the millions of dollars in transportation funds he's secured for his district, then proudly proclaims his recognition as a fiscal conservative from various conservative taxpayer groups. Presumably not the taxpayers who are buying his new roads.

Esquire endorses: Auman. Incumbent Democrat Lane Evans is retiring due to complications from Parkinson's disease, first diagnosed in The Republican candidate Andrea Zinger's credentials consist only of being a local news anchor, and her classless attack on Evans in her run, implying that his medications made him intellectually incompetent, are a pill too bitter to swallow.

Esquire endorses: Hare. It takes savvy and spine to oppose one's own party on foreign policy in an election year, and LaHood has done so several times, most recently when he argued for visa extensions for Lebanese visitors and a resumption of talks on lifting the Cuban embargo following Fidel Castro's illness. Esquire endorses: LaHood. Shimkus is the one who got the White House to reduce restrictions on mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. As we understand it, mercury's pretty bad for you. Esquire endorses: Stover.

A moderate who prioritizes his constituents' interests, Visclosky is nothing to write home about, and nothing to complain about, either. Esquire endorses: Visclosky. It's lucky for Chris Chocola that his constituents are, like him, socially conservative, because his strict pro-trade economic views likely cost many jobs in this industrial region.

Esquire endorses: Donnelly. Souder says his evangelical Christianity is his defining characteristic. From his record of symbolic as opposed to meaningful conservative stands, we'd say he's defined by a tendency to say a lot and do little. Esquire endorses: Hayhurst. Steve Buyer's the sort of man for whom the U. Esquire endorses: Sanders. Incumbent Dan Burton is sober as a priest on some issues, mad as a hatter on others.

To his credit, he opposed the Medicare drug plan as a sellout to Big Pharma, but otherwise he's just been too strange for too long. Don't forget, he conducted his own ballistics tests--by shooting a melon in his backyard--to prove that Vince Foster was murdered. Esquire endorses: Carr. Pence is a strict conservative, to the extent that he actually opposes runaway government spending.

He's also rational on the immigration issue, helping write a compromise bill he's catching hell for from the wing nuts. Our kind of guy. Esquire endorses: Pence. Carson has served her district's needs well for more than three decades, first locally and then, since , nationally. Her opponent likes to proclaim his advantage in business sense, having been PR chief for General Motors. Pardon us for considering that a weak argument. Esquire endorses: Carson.

John Hostettler distinguished himself from other rubber-stamp Bush Republicans only by attempting to carry a loaded pistol onto a plane in Kentucky in His opponent, a centrist Democratic sheriff, won't be so dadgum stupid. Esquire endorses: Ellsworth. Mike Sodrel is spending more time talking about his problems with the Democrats than about his own achievements. That's an argument for his opponent in itself, but suggesting that a vote for Hill--a conservative Democrat and former congressman--is a vote for "San Francisco" betrays his stupidity and utter lack of distinction.

Esquire endorses: Hill. Iowans have long voted down the center, favoring neither dogmatic conservatism nor traditional liberalism. The candidates in this race are both positioning themselves as moderates, a hard claim for Nussle to make after being a hard charger in the Gingrich revolution. Esquire endorses: Culver. In a race between political newcomers, Democrat Braley a lawyer is running ahead of Republican Whalen head of a hotel-and-restaurant business , likely due to dissatisfaction with current representative Jim Nussle's close relationship with the Bush administration.

Braley's the better choice, but it could be fun to elect James Hill, a self-declared "pirate" whose campaign slogans include "Chain-whip me if I ever ride in a limo. Jim Leach accepts no PAC money, nor any money from outside his state. He considers every piece of legislation on its own merits. He runs clean and fair campaigns, even when his opponents don't. He is, in short, a model representative. Esquire endorses: Leach. Boswell is a conservative Democrat mostly known for quietly working in support of his farmer constituents--and for remaining almost invisible otherwise. He'd be up for replacement if his opponent weren't exactly what America doesn't need right now: another member of the Christian right in Congress.

Esquire endorses: Boswell. Latham has voted down the line with the current administration even though he's hardly an archconservative; maybe opportunist is the better word. But on local issues he's been creative. His support for remote health care doctoring via live data linkups , a technique of great promise in America's growing rural areas, is forward thinking and budget minded. Esquire endorses: Latham. Steve King doesn't just support building a mile wall along the border with Mexico, he actually designed and built one himself.

Out of cardboard and scraps of wood. Words fail: Juvenile? Merit badge? In any case, King should not have power over tax dollars. Esquire endorses: Schulte. Contrary to national trends, Kansas has drifted toward the moderate wing of both parties over the past six years. Both the incumbent and the challenger typify the shift, but the incumbent, Sebelius, has the better record of leadership and results.

Esquire endorses: Sebelius. Jerry Moran is a serious conservative-to-moderate member of his party not given to loud rhetoric or hyperbole. Bless him. Esquire endorses: Moran. Ryun is an ultraconservative evangelical Christian, but his moral superiority didn't stop him from purchasing a townhouse at below-market price from a sham family-values organization that served, in reality, as an Abramoff-DeLay slush fund. Esquire endorses: Boyda.

Brief Explanation

This district is split between Democrats, moderate Republicans, and conservative Republicans. Moore appeals to the first two and has a record of solid results, but should Ahner, also a moderate, win in November, the district will continue to be well served. Esquire endorses: Moore. Esquire endorses: McGinn. It was a surprise when Whitfield won in this traditionally Southern Democratic district in But he earned every subsequent reelection with his work on behalf of local interests, including--despite the administration's opposition--federal help in the cleanup of a uranium-enrichment plant.

Esquire endorses: Whitfield. Lewis is one of those religious conservatives who back up their public statements with personal action: He's the father of an adopted child. If only more abortion opponents actually did something to support women who choose life. Esquire endorses: Lewis. Anne Northup, first elected in , frequently boasts of the millions in federal money she gets for her district.

She is emblematic of the bloated, ineffectual government controlled by self-described fiscal conservatives. Esquire endorses: Yarmuth. Davis is a former Army Ranger and has more national-security experience than anyone else in the Republican class of , schooling himself and others on the hot-button China issue, which most just demagogue.

This one will be close. Harold Rogers moderates his cultural conservatism with economic views more in line with this working-class district. Esquire endorses: Rogers. Another scion of a southern political dynasty his grandfather was governor, senator, and commissioner of baseball , Chandler is rooted in values that have served his district for decades: social conservatism with an ingrained disdain for government interference and willing support for locally beneficial spending plans.

Esquire endorses: Chandler. Jindal swept into office on a party-line Republican platform two years ago, but he's burned a few bridges--and made friends back home--by fighting for Louisiana to get a fair share of the royalties from its offshore oil. Plus, his IQ could boil water. Esquire endorses: Jindal.

Louisiana politics is always local, but Melancon, in his first term, has also displayed global vision in brokering a deal to have Louisiana oil experts help develop Kazakhstan's offshore oil fields. Esquire endorses: Melancon. McCrery is known as a conservative, but he's not blindly so, and he's a peacemaker between warring House members.

Esquire endorses: McCrery. Alexander is in the GOP now--and his values have long fit in there--but he was elected as a Democrat. His switch was unexpected, opportunistically timed, and more than a little vindictive; a man of his character represents few Americans, whatever their party. His opponent, unfortunately, is virtually invisible. If there is never another Enron, hedge-fund collapse, or insider-trading scandal, you'll have Richard Baker to thank for it.

He is the leading advocate of corporate accountability in the House, and one of the few with the expertise to craft legislation to effect it. Esquire endorses: Baker. Boustany has done little to offend his party in his two years in Congress--even on the matter of the weak federal response to Hurricane Rita, which ravaged his district. His opponent won't be such a lapdog.

Esquire endorses: Stagg. A member of Maine's government since , Baldacci's first term as governor saw him deftly rein in and begin solving the state's fiscal woes. No wonder he's so popular. Esquire endorses: Baldacci. An early proponent of campaign-finance reform, Allen is also a leader on mercury regulation--appropriate for a state that makes a lot of money from the sea. Esquire endorses: Allen.

Many politicians claim to have working-class values; Michaud earned his laboring in a paper mill for 28 years. He knows his people's needs, and he's one of the House's most outspoken supporters of women's equality. Esquire endorses: Michaud. Ehrlich was elected four years ago, when the weakest Kennedy--Kathleen Townsend--was the Democratic standard-bearer, and he has displayed admirable signs of pragmatism in Annapolis.

But the far better choice is Baltimore's mayor, Martin O'Malley, who has been a dynamic executive for his city, and will be a national figure once this election is over. Esquire endorses: O'Malley. Paul Sarbanes is retiring. Both candidates to replace him have decent bipartisan credentials, but Steele's relatively thin record can't compare with Cardin's 20 good years in the House. Esquire endorses: Cardin. It's hard to fault Gilchrest when he so deftly balances economic development with environmental protection and civil liberties with support for crime reduction.

He's also visited Iraq repeatedly to assess its condition--something few of his hawkish colleagues can boast. Esquire endorses: Gilchrest. Ruppersberger is one of the more conservative members of his party. He's strongly pro-business, with an active interest in urban redevelopment, and that's a good thing for his Baltimore-area district. Esquire endorses: Ruppersberger.

Running to replace him are Sarbanes's son John and John White, who has memorized the Republican talking points quite well. Esquire endorses: Sarbanes. In a district with a huge number of federal employees, Wynn has wisely opponents would say selfishly put their interests ahead of party politics.

Esquire endorses: Wynn. Critics say he's viciously partisan, and they're right. Sometimes you have to fight fire with fire. Esquire endorses: Hoyer. Bartlett is one of those curious, quirky representatives that Congress seems to need a couple of in order to function. He's an old-school say, s Republican, all about religious asceticism and personal responsibility; he's also got 20 patents on lifesaving equipment for pilots and emergency workers.

What's not to like, or at least respect? Esquire endorses: Bartlett. Cummings represents a split district, wealthy Howard County and poor west Baltimore. He protects the poor, demonstrating a strict liberal record, notably on gun control. Esquire endorses: Cummings. First elected in to a Republican Congress, liberal Democrat Van Hollen surprised many with his dealmaking skills, particularly when he secured House passage of a bill limiting the outsourcing of federal jobs.

Esquire endorses: Van Hollen. Mitt Romney is leaving office after one term to run for president. As his likely replacement, Deval Patrick stands out like a beacon. Born into abject poverty, he got himself into Harvard, then into the top levels of several Fortune companies, and led the civil-rights division of the Clinton Justice Department. Esquire endorses: Patrick. This outcome is a foregone conclusion. But Kennedy, despite his name being an epithet among conservatives, has for 40 years been one of the most effective aisle-crossing senators in American history.

Esquire endorses: Kennedy. He's hardly the most vocal or profligate of congressmen, and that makes John Olver one of many examples belying the "tax and spend" stereotype with which Republicans--some of the biggest spenders in U. Esquire endorses: Olver. Esquire endorses: Neal. McGovern who once worked for the former senator of the same name is an instinctive Democrat, Catholic to the bone and pro-union to the end.

Appropriate for a district centered in Worcester, the cradle and now grave of the industrial revolution. Esquire endorses: McGovern. Republicans just love to take jabs at Barney. Naturally: They can't match his guts or his record. For all the right wing's efforts to caricature him, Frank has more than amply demonstrated that he's one of the strictest constitutionalists on the Hill. Esquire endorses: Frank. With Republican Chris Shays of Connecticut, Meehan sponsored legislation requiring greater disclosure of lobbyist activities and spending.

Mainstream Republicans, who have blessed lobbyists with skyrocketing income in the past six years, naturally resisted. Esquire endorses: Meehan. Tierney doesn't pursue a national agenda; he looks after the fishermen and retirees who make up his voting base. Esquire endorses: Tierney. One of the most senior representatives of either party, Markey has long been a leader of bipartisan efforts. His perceptive observations on ongoing security failures under the Department of Homeland Security have been a thorn in the administration's side.

Esquire endorses: Markey. Anyone from Massachusetts willing to stand up to the hypocrisy of the Catholic church has got stones--and nimble political instincts. Esquire endorses: Capuano. The most conservative of the Massachusetts representatives, Lynch is a lock for his traditional Boston Catholic district, and rightly so. Esquire endorses: Lynch. Another locally focused Massachusetts rep, Delahunt looks after Cape Cod and votes in favor of fishermen and labor unions. Esquire endorses: Delahunt. Jennifer Granholm was a rising Democratic star when she took office in , but since then--thanks to the Detroit auto industry's failings--Michigan's shaky economy has dragged her back to earth.

That said, she's pushed through some politically courageous budget cuts in the interest of long-term state fiscal health. Her politically inexperienced opponent, on the other hand, has offered plenty of conservative platitudes but virtually no firm policy positions. Esquire endorses: Granholm. The GOP is targeting this seat, charging incumbent Democrat Debbie Stabenow with failing to pass legislation that would help the auto industry.

Which isn't actually true. But yeah, it's hard to protect your constituents when the Republican Congress cynically stymies your every effort. Expect more of the same if the Republican candidate, Mike Bouchard, gets elected. Esquire endorses: Stabenow. Stupak fits his district--and much of America--to a tee, as a rational and centrist Democrat firmly rooted in heartland values.

Esquire endorses: Stupak. Incumbent Hoekstra is an anomaly: a religiously conservative Republican who appears to a actually believe in classical conservative values and b refuses to compromise them for personal or political gain. Among other things, he got a law passed barring former representatives from lobbying on the floor of the House. Esquire endorses: Hoekstra. Ehlers is a physicist by training, and his rational, just-the-facts approach to environmental protection and most other issues puts him at odds with many in his party--and in line with most Americans, Democratic or Republican.

Esquire endorses: Ehlers. Dave Camp is a by-the-book conservative and thus well-attuned to his vacation-home district's political leanings. That said, his opponent, Mike Huckleberry, is running a hell of an intelligent--and compelling--campaign for a restaurant owner who still fills his own water pitchers. Esquire endorses: Huckleberry.

Dale Kildee's old-school Catholic values--pro-union, antiabortion, supportive of the poor and disenfranchised--worked for earlier generations of East Coast politicians. He proves that they still do in the Midwest. Esquire endorses: Kildee. Although his sponsoring of massive increases in the fines for broadcasters who air so-called smut rang as moral posturing, Upton's serious and repeated questioning of the ethics and logic of the Bush tax cuts had the solid thunk of genuine conviction. Esquire endorses: Upton. Walberg, a Bible-thumping minister, defeated incumbent centrist Joe Schwarz in the Republican primary.

When even President Bush campaigns for the moderate, as he did for Schwarz, you know the other guy is bad news. Esquire endorses: Renier. Esquire endorses: Marcinkowski. This administration? Esquire endorses: Skinner. Miller is a rubber-stamp Bushie reprimanded by the Ethics Committee for intimidating a fellow representative at Tom DeLay's urging. That alone is grounds for dismissal. Esquire endorses: Denison. Little of the legislation supported or sponsored by incumbent McCotter is more than symbolic.

America needs creativity and thoughtfulness, not gestures and sound bites. Esquire endorses: Trupiano. Sander Levin on the repeal of the estate tax: "Whose side are you on: the million Americans who will be alive in the year , or the 7, families who would benefit from this bill? This is a sellout of million people. Esquire endorses: Levin. Kilpatrick is the mother of Detroit's troubled mayor, and her record, like his, describes a politician interested only in enjoying the perks of her position. Tragically, she is also the incoming chairwoman of the Congressional Black Caucus, which is not a pleasant prospect at all.

The second-most-senior member of the House he was first elected in , Conyers has the authority of experience. Unfortunately, that doesn't translate into notable creativity or influence, but he serves his district well. Esquire endorses: Conyers. The senior member of the House first elected in , John Dingell has survived every social and political revolution thanks to a shrewd combination of populism and principled stands. The lack of an opponent in this mixed district speaks to his mastery of political craft. Esquire endorses: Dingell.

Since then he's had far less success, and voters showed their displeasure by replacing 13 incumbent Republicans with Democrats in the state elections in But it's hard to imagine his opponent doing anything dramatically better--or even dramatically different. Esquire endorses: Pawlenty. In the race to replace Democrat Mark Dayton, Klobuchar has the edge. Minnesota voters value independence and forthrightness in their elected officials, and Kennedy, a congressman, has displayed neither, rubber-stamping most Bush policies until recently, and now forgetting to mention he's a Republican.

Klobuchar, a county attorney, lacks this baggage. Esquire endorses: Klobuchar. So it seems that "new information" about the state of the Iraq war now demands that Gutknecht reassess his support for it. Well, better late than never. Esquire endorses: Walz. Kline, a native Texan and career marine, seems out of step with this district, and he is one of those guys who still repeatedly bring up September 11 to justify the war in Iraq, determinedly trying to confuse people.

Her opponent is simply unsuited for the job. Esquire endorses: Rowley. A moderate, Ramstad has been unwavering in his support for embryonic-stem-cell research and substance-abuse treatment programs. He is a recovered alcoholic, dry since Esquire endorses: Ramstad. McCollum is the sort of earnest, practical religious liberal the Midwest has produced for decades--to the nation's benefit.

She's being opposed by a hydrologist.

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Esquire endorses: McCollum. The race to take retiring Rep. Martin Sabo's seat in Congress won't be close; this district is solidly liberal. And its new congressman will be the first Muslim elected to Congress. Esquire endorses: Ellison. This is a race between bumblers: Bachmann undermines her pro-education platform by taking thousands from a group that advocates ending public schooling, and Wetterling skips a debate in order to hold a campaign strategy meeting. Bachmann, however, is the one suckling at the Karl Rove teat.

Esquire endorses: Wetterling. With a friend as good as moderate, maverick Democrat Collin Peterson in the House, it's a wonder the Republicans are even fielding an opponent. Democrats would be wise to learn from his ability to rack up solid wins year after year in a Republican district. Esquire endorses: Peterson. Holding true to the liberal Catholic traditions of his iron-mining district, Oberstar protects his workers and the open lands on which they like to hunt and fish.

An avid cyclist, he also got money for bike and pedestrian trails inserted into the last major transportation bill. Esquire endorses: Oberstar. This endorsement would have been different if it had happened before , when Lott's career seemed fatally injured after he praised the early, segregationist career of Strom Thurmond.

But he survived and has been something of a gadfly on the Hill since then. Know what? The Senate needs people like him. Esquire endorses: Lott. Not a great choice here. Wicker's a conservative in the Dixiecrat mode, down on taxes, after the pork has been secured, of course. But his opponent inspires no confidence whatsoever.

Esquire endorses: Wicker. The civil-rights movement taught Thompson his politics; he has, however, not grown much in office. It's time for him to move on, and his opponent, a local mayor, has the right stuff to replace him. Esquire endorses: Brown. The son of a celebrated Mississippi prosecutor--one who helped convict KKK members--Pickering learned his mix of conservative politics and commitment to equal rights at an early age. Esquire endorses: Pickering. Taylor's an anachronism--a populist, conservative, ornery old street fighter who seems to enjoy making trouble as much as solving problems, which he does in equal measure.

He possesses a rare independence and a veteran's skill.

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Jim Talent, elected on a pro-Bush platform and one of the administration's most faithful supporters, now takes great pains not to mention the president on his campaign Web site. But the stench of weak-willed--not to mention irresponsible--obeisance still clings. Esquire endorses: McCaskill.

In an overwhelmingly Democratic and largely black district, Clay--the son of former representative Bill Clay--has picked a wise focus: defense of voting rights. Esquire endorses: Clay. Like a huge number of his ultraconservative colleagues, Akin supports federalism only when it suits him: When a California court declared the "under God" phrase of the Pledge of Allegiance unconstitutional, he introduced a bill that would have negated all lower courts' rulings on the pledge.

Esquire endorses: Weber. One of Missouri's political scions, Carnahan learned from his father--former governor Mel Carnahan--a good strategy for surviving Missouri's humid political climate: move slowly, don't talk too much, and stick close to the cool mainstream. Esquire endorses: Carnahan. It's a given that when he retires, incumbent Democrat Ike Skelton will be replaced by a Republican.

The fact that he still wins by huge margins--outpolling Bush in , astonishingly--is due to his universally respected expertise on defense, a big issue in a district that is home to both an Air Force and an Army base. Esquire endorses: Skelton. Poor institutional support under Bush has undermined it, but the old way was a clear failure, and Cleaver's unpopular vote to change it took real independence. Esquire endorses: Cleaver. It says something about a politician's level of commitment when his campaign Web site is still under construction two months before Election Day.

But it's not all that surprising from a guy like Sam Graves, who has demonstrated little initiative as a congressman. Esquire endorses: Shettles. Personally, he took significant contributions from Jack Abramoff and took action on behalf of two of Abramoff's clients.

He has introduced legislation that directly benefits clients of one of his sons, who is a lobbyist. And he raised a pile of questionable cash for another son, who is governor. Unclear when he has time to represent District 7. Unfortunately, he doesn't have much of an opponent.

Esquire endorses: Truman. Independent-minded incumbent Emerson is a welcome voice of reason and humanity within her party. If Congress goes to the Democrats or becomes politically balanced, she'll be a valuable bipartisan ally for both parties. Esquire endorses: Emerson. An earnest, moderate lawmaker, Hulshof was taken aback when he lost his Ethics Committee seat after voting to admonish Tom DeLay for ethics violations in He deserves his seat, and those responsible for his ouster should lose theirs.

Esquire endorses: Hulshof. Did Conrad Burns have any friends as a child? From calling Arabs "ragheads" to reportedly suggesting a fiight attendant become a stay-at-home mom to, in late August, branding all taxi drivers as terrorists, his dominant trait is loutish insensitivity. Oh, and he's closely tied to Jack Abramoff. Montanans have an opportunity to correct a bad mistake. Esquire endorses: Tester. Rehberg is a fiscal conservative above all. It doesn't prevent him from bringing some money home to Montana, but it's generally for reputable programs. Esquire endorses: Rehberg.

Heineman pulled off the upset of the year when he defeated legendary Nebraska football coach Tom Osborne for the gubernatorial nomination. But he did it by demagoguing to the far right on immigration. Esquire endorses: Hahn. Nelson's one of the more conservative Democrats in the Senate--appropriate for his state, whose interests he puts above all others. His opponent talks like a White House mouthpiece.

Esquire endorses: Nelson. Fortenberry has done little to distinguish himself from the party line. His opponent, a former Nebraska lieutenant governor, is an independent, like Nebraska. Esquire endorses: Moul. Like so many other Republicans this year, Terry appears to be pinning all his reelection hopes on a ruthless anti-immigration stance. It's ugly, cheap, and deeply cynical. Esquire endorses: Esch. Smith has taken hundreds of thousands of dollars from the Club for Growth, the radical antitax group bent on ruining America.

His opponent, Kleeb, is a rancher, like so many of his would-be constituents. Esquire endorses: Kleeb. Gibbons, a congressman, is an idealogue who wears his ignorance proudly. Well, not too proudly--he was reluctant to debate state senator Titus, who would make a solid governor. Esquire endorses: Titus. Ensign's not the hardest-working senator, but he's forged a working relationship with Nevada's senior senator--Democratic leader Harry Reid--that works for the state.

And to be honest, his opponent, son of the former president, is kind of a boob. Esquire endorses: Ensign. Berkley was first elected despite the revelation that she'd urged a casino developer to donate money to several judges in order to gain favor. But she's wised up, and her opponent is nothing but a Monday-morning "patriot. As secretary of state for Nevada, Heller's been unusually active.

His support of a system that protects the privacy of domestic-abuse victims from their abusers is particularly admirable. Esquire endorses: Heller. Fiscal conservatism and cultural liberalism is a recipe for practical if not political success in America, and Porter believes in both. Esquire endorses: Porter.

Lynch was elected by the narrowest of margins in , campaigning on a platform of anticorruption bipartisan policies. He must be doing something right, because his approval rating in this sharply divided state is now near 80 percent. Bradley's a popular, moderate conservative who's broken with the Bush administration on several major issues, including drilling in ANWR and embryonic-stem-cell research.

There's no reason to replace him. Esquire endorses: Bradley. Like his fellow New Hampshire representative, Bass is an independent centrist. He's particularly outspoken for a Republican, anyway on environmental issues and decries the administration's loosening of pollution standards and inaction on global warming. Esquire endorses: Bass. Tom Kean Jr. Unfortunately, his charge that Menendez was involved in a major kickback scandal in the state in the early s has proved not just exaggerated but blatantly untrue: Prosecutors from the case recall the thenyear-old Menendez as being extraordinarily courageous in fingering both enemies and allies for their criminal activities.

Esquire endorses: Menendez. Andrews is one of the most active members in the House; it helps that he works both with and against the GOP majority. Esquire endorses: Andrews. A hardworking, uncontroversial moderate conservative, LoBiondo reflects his district well. His experience gives him the edge over his anonymous opponent. Esquire endorses: LoBiondo. Anyone who, in defending the Bush tax cuts, calls the federal income tax "steeply progressive" opens himself to questions regarding his intellectual honesty.

That said, Saxton has a history of bucking the GOP establishment, especially on environmental issues. Esquire endorses: Saxton. Smith's respect for life cuts both ways. On the one hand, he's an especially vocal opponent of abortion rights; on the other, he strongly opposes his party's cozy economic relations with nations China, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia widely known to abuse human rights.

All in all, he comes out looking good. Esquire endorses: Smith. Scott Garrett is a reactionary who thinks government has no role, except, of course, to limit "un-Christian" behavior. It is quite honestly mind-boggling that he was ever elected in the first place, and in challenger Paul Aronsohn his constituents have a man worthy of representing them. Esquire endorses: Aronsohn. You might get your ass kicked on the Jersey shore if you proclaimed yourself an environmentalist. But if you simply act like one, as Pallone has in opposing the dumping of medical and human waste off the New Jersey coast, you're apt to be well liked.

His tough stance on crime only adds to his popularity. Esquire endorses: Pallone. Curiously, a large number of Catholic representatives now represent--and mirror the views of--WASP constituents. Such a man is Mike Ferguson, who supports prayer in school and a ban on abortions but is centrist on the environment. He fits his mandate. Esquire endorses: Ferguson. Pascrell is a hometown kid who works for his hometown--and nobody else.

That's commendable in its own way. Esquire endorses: Pascrell. Rothman doesn't have to work hard to be reelected in his Democratic district. But he's picked a few fights and won them, including his effort to protect the last remaining Meadowlands not the stadium, but the species-rich estuary from development.

Esquire endorses: Rothman. As urban revitalization and international diplomacy became political lepers under the current administration, Donald Payne kept ministering to them. Which is his job. Esquire endorses: Payne. The Bush family likes to tout its deep political roots, but they've got nothing on Frelinghuysen, whose folks have represented New Jersey since the s.

Perhaps because they've long stood for fiscal conservatism and social liberalism--two values that, in combination, describe most Americans. Esquire endorses: Frelinghuysen. As a former research physicist and college professor, Holt is concerned that Congress does not get fair, unbiased information about scientific and technological advances. To that end, he's tried to reestablish a nonpartisan congressional agency to give representatives just that kind of knowledge.

Esquire endorses: Holt. When Robert Menendez was named now-governor-of-New-Jersey Jon Corzine's replacement in the Senate, a vicious fight to replace him in the House broke out among Democrats. Sires won. Esquire endorses: Sires. Richardson is one of the towering figures in American politics for a reason: because he plays the game like a master.

And he certainly has executive aspirations beyond Santa Fe. Esquire endorses: Richardson. Bingaman is a quiet man; it's hard to believe he's held this office since But it's easy to understand when you see his track record of conservation and intelligent energy policy. Esquire endorses: Bingaman. Heather Wilson says Janet Jackson's tit made her cry. We call BS. In any case, on many other issues, she's relatively clear-eyed. Esquire endorses: Wilson. Hopefully more Republicans will listen to Pearce on the immigration issue.

He takes a pragmatic, nonpunitive, security-based line. Esquire endorses: Pearce. Another of the Udall dynasty, Tom follows in his father's footsteps. He's conservationist, pro-labor, and wary of infringements on civil liberties. Good work, son. Spitzer, the current New York attorney general, is fast becoming a national star and is a deserved lock for his aggressive actions against corporate and political corruption. Some folks in Albany must be worried he'll stick to that habit as governor.

Esquire endorses: Spitzer. Bishop, a college educator by trade, matches his affluent, socially liberal, fiscally conservative district well. Another good fit for his district, Israel brings a former town councilman's pragmatism to the job, and a respect for religious tolerance--not surprising given the mix of Jews, Protestants, and, a recent addition, Catholic immigrants who make up his constituency.

Esquire endorses: Israel. In what's expected to be a hot election, seven-term incumbent King faces popular local legislator Mejias. King may have overstayed his welcome, or his district may have outgrown him; in any case, his veer from McCain Republicanism toward the Bush doctrine seems reactionary. Esquire endorses: Mejias. Ten years ago, after the murder of her husband, Carolyn McCarthy entered politics on a gun-control platform. She has focused on that, and on education and health-care issues, ever since.

Esquire endorses: McCarthy. Ackerman could only have come from New York, and a man of his contradictions could really only represent Queens, the most diverse community in the nation. He's irascible, humorous, half-liberal, half-conservative--think of the mids Ed Koch, whom he resembles both politically and physically. Esquire endorses: Ackerman. A popular Democrat from a Democrat-owned district, Meeks could have become a rubber-stamp representative. He decided to do more, engaging in national and international relations with passion.

Some believe he'll run for mayor of New York someday. Esquire endorses: Meeks. A politician since age 24, Crowley has taken advantage of his secure seat to devote himself to fundraising for his party and campaigning for fellow congressmen facing tougher elections. He also rightly opposed cuts in counterterrorism funding for New York. Esquire endorses: Crowley. An unabashed liberal representing unabashedly liberal Manhattan, Nadler also displays urban and urbane wisdom in his work supporting New York's economic infrastructure--including the rebuilding of the World Trade Center.

Esquire endorses: Nadler. Weiner rose to local prominence with his impressive run for New York mayor in Since then he's worked quietly for his Brooklyn constituents, but he's a major behind-the-scenes force in the city--and, many predict, the nation someday. Esquire endorses: Weiner. Towns has long bucked the black urban Democratic mold, often backing market-based rather than federal solutions to the problem of poverty. It takes a freethinking, not to mention gutsy, guy to back Rudy Giuliani in this district, as Towns did in Esquire endorses: Towns.

This open seat, a Democratic lock, was decided in the primary, a race largely shaped by loyalties rather than values, so the endorsement of Yvette Clarke by Rep. Anthony Weiner means a lot. Esquire endorses: Clarke. Velazquez represents her largely Puerto Rican district with the understanding and eloquence you'd expect of a former professor who grew up in Puerto Rico herself.

There's no need to find a replacement. Esquire endorses: Velazquez. Esquire endorses: Harrison. Maloney fits her district well, liberal on most issues but fiscally conservative. She's been particularly astute in her work on finance legislation. Esquire endorses: Maloney.

Through economic ups and downs, wave upon wave of immigration and economic fiight, Charlie Rangel has represented his Harlem-centered district with a showman's flair and a politician's razor instincts. He can be rude, funny, bombastic, and self-deprecating--all at the same time--but he's never less than his own man. Esquire endorses: Rangel. A liberal of the truly leftist persuasion, Jose' Serrano could probably not be elected anywhere but his South Bronx district well, perhaps San Francisco. He got 95 percent of the vote in his last run. Esquire endorses: Serrano.

Incumbent Engel has deftly represented his constituents a Bronx-style gumbo of all races, ages, and political persuasions since Neither pure Democrat nor pure Republican, he's something better: a rational representative who knows when to fight and when to negotiate. Esquire endorses: Engel. A wealthy liberal representing a wealthy liberal district, Lowey supports most Democratic causes, leaning a little more to the right when it comes to Israel--though she's careful to distance herself from recent adventures in the Mideast.

Esquire endorses: Lowey. Incumbent Kelly, a moderate Republican though a Gingrich protege' , has faced challenges from the left and the right throughout her career. This time she may become a victim of her own centrism. Her opponent is lefty John Hall of the band Orleans. Esquire endorses: Kelly. John Sweeney did his undistinguished career no favors by partying with students at Union College in April. And those nagging and repeated allegations of ethical lapses won't go away.

His opponent is a lawyer with a distinguished career and a history of public-interest work. Esquire endorses: Gillibrand. McNulty is from Albany and of Albany, meaning he's the sort of streetwise, pro-union, pro-church Democrat that disappeared from most cities a generation ago. He doesn't shine, but he fits. Esquire endorses: McNulty.

Esquire endorses: Hinchey. A moderate Republican with a balanced view of the virtues of the pure free market, McHugh defends his constituents' economic interests without resorting to pork or to cumbersome trade policies. In it were two pages of notes Hamilton wrote for the gardener at Hamilton Grange, his beloved estate in upper Manhattan, including a sketch he drew for an impressively large flower bed. Although Hamilton directs his gardener to plant potatoes, get raspberry plants from a neighbor, and repair fences, many of his notes deal with ornamental plants, including American natives.

Best of all is his plan for a large bed of flower bulbs. The unlabeled bulbs are especially intriguing. And what did he intend for the center of this large bed, and for later in the season when the tulips, hyacinths, and early-summer-blooming Madonna lilies were done? Although we may never know the answers to those burning questions, we do know this: Alexander Hamilton — immigrant, self-made man, revolutionary leader, financial mastermind, and Founding Father — was a gardener and bulb-lover just like us. Our garden was burgled last summer with more than 20 garden ornaments taken, many of them antiques.

They even went into my greenhouse and potting shed in search of portable items. Alas, I had a photograph of only one of the stolen pieces, taken for a garden tour brochure. Lesson learned. Everything will now be photographed and kept in a file along with all of the receipts, which I do have safely stored.

Not a pleasant way to have to live. And I will not be able to — or even want to — start replacing many of these lost treasures. They took a pair of cast-iron tulip urns, for example, that I loved. My condolences, friend! Israel has been selling garden antiques for over 30 years from her home in Westchester County, NY. To learn more or register, visit oldsalem. The last two days of May here were filled with excitement and dust as we packed up and moved to our new home at a historic farmstead just three miles away. Located just north of town, the Hub supports small farmers by distributing their crops to local grocery stores, restaurants, and institutions as well as providing workspace for slow-food businesses such as Locavorious and The Brinery.

Maybe best of all, moving to the Hub will allow us to consolidate our five Ann Arbor micro-farms into one location right outside our office door. Life is good! In summer the heat is terrific, in winter the cold is intense, and at all seasons these valleys are subject to sudden and violent wind-storms against which neither man nor beast can make headway.

Not in twos and threes but in hundreds, in thousands, aye, in tens of thousands. Its slender stems. For a brief season this lily transforms a lonely, semi-desert region into a veritable fairyland. Thanks to Wilson, you can enjoy a bit of this distant fairyland in your own backyard.

Simply order now for fall delivery! After two years at Hale Farm and Village, the symposium is moving this year to the Akron Art Museum with its spectacular, gravity-defying addition. For more information or to register, contact Kathie Vandervere at kvandevere icloud. At first I plan to just take it easy, sleep more, garden more, and spend more time with my wife Jane, our dog Toby, and these two little angels, 8-month-old Benjamin John and one-month-old Nolan James.

To all of you who sent me happy retirement wishes this past year, thank you! You warmed my heart, and made this big step easier. Established in Montclair, New Jersey, in , the Presby Memorial Iris Garden today includes nearly 14, iris plants of varieties. Like most people, I never thought about plants and gardens having a history — until almost 40 years ago when I bought my first old house and walked out into the tiny yard eager to make it my own.

There behind the overgrown privet hedge, I discovered a few barely surviving plants, including a white, single-flowered peony. Someone else had loved it before me. But who, and when? Was the peony ten years old, or 50, or ? And what about the hedge? Looking for answers proved frustrating at first. This was back in the dark ages — before Google. But finally I discovered this book by Rudy and Joy Favretti — or rather the original, edition of it — and I was no longer wandering in the wilderness.

A new edition of this indispensable work has been long overdue. Although the core of it is unchanged, Rudy and Joy have added illustrations and updated information throughout. It may not change your life the way it did mine, but it will certainly help you see any yard — and the wider landscape all around us — with new eyes. With a collection of hyacinth varieties dating back as far as the s, our good friend Alan Shipp is an inspiring example of what one person can do to save our incredibly rich garden heritage.

For more, you can check out the entire article at our website. We recently learned an old name for pink rain lilies. Summer is coming, so why not order a few to try yourself in any kind of pot you want? A new website, HistoricPavement. From colonial cobblestones to mid-century modern hexagons, paving has changed dramatically through the years, often with a fascinating regional diversity. In Philadelphia, for example, a few old streets are paved with iron-slag bricks that look like dark blue ceramic. Then keep your head down — and if you see something interesting, Robin would love to hear from you at rwilliam scad.

Sure I learned a lot, and it was great hanging out with so many fellow enthusiasts, and the Mount Vernon grounds are amazing. What really sticks in my memory, though, was an elegant after-hours reception on the piazza and grand lawn high above the Potomac where Dean fired off his home-made PVC potato cannon to show us how the Washingtons celebrated special occasions — although they, of course, used a real cannon.

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Our good customer Joe Gromacki will also be there talking about his Kelton House Farm, an earlys New England farmhouse moved and rebuilt in Wisconsin which Joe has furnished with colonial antiques and surrounded with heirloom plants, including tens of thousands of our bulbs. To learn more and register, go to the Symposium page at mountvernon. Thank you, Letty, for sharing it with us! While the estates had ranks of professional gardeners, the owners were often actively involved, particularly when it came to competitive gardening.

Jones, Jr. The wife of a steel industry magnate, she lived at Fairacres, a room Louis XVI mansion surrounded by acres of gardens. You can see a few photos of Fairacres at our blog. There, with the help of her head gardener R. Fletcher, she grew thousands of dahlias. In Sewickley the gardening year culminated in September with the annual Dahlia Show.

Those who have never seen a dahlia show have indeed a thrill yet to live for. The three-day event included almost 50 competitive classes for dahlias — including several for vases of 12 to 25 blooms of one variety. Photos of the show in the society pages of the Pittsburgh press are breathtaking.

Dahlias in vases tower over the heads of the small girls admiring them, and some arrangements are even taller than their mothers. Twenty years after her death in , Mrs. Jones won, poignant souvenirs of her prize-winning roses, chrysanthemums, and, above all, her glorious dahlias. March That seems very unlikely, which is why I was so surprised when this postcard arrived in the mail recently. The blossoms range from pure white to deep purple, gold, and dark red, and are at their best during May.

Weeping willows and rustic bridges add to the beauty of the rolling parkway. Iris were enormously popular at that time, and before long other neighbors joined the campaign and the Municipal Iris Garden was born. The city parks department cleared the land, planted weeping willow trees, built stone and rustic-work bridges over the stream, and laid out gracefully curving beds. From an unattractive gully the city parks department has transformed Runnymede Parkway into one of the most popular parks in the city. But that was then.

By the early s the iris had been replaced with lower-maintenance azaleas, and today even those are gone. For additional images, visit digitalforsyth. It has been named the collaret form and first was brought to notice by Messrs. Cannell and Sons [of] Swanley, Kent. The engraving gives a good idea of its nature. The colors are somewhat limited at present but in the course of another season or so the variation of tints will be very much increased. As there may be a future for this race, it is probable that many growers will obtain plants to form a beginning with them.

The great horticulturist John Wister helped found the American Iris Society in and served as its first president for fourteen years. At that time, iris were exceedingly popular and scores of exciting new varieties were being introduced every year. It is unexcelled for massing and should be used in every garden in quantities. Just order yours now for April delivery! In an excellent article for the American Hemerocallis Society, Linda Sue Barnes offers several answers to those two questions, most of which also apply to the even bigger questions: What good is any historic flower?

And why should we grow them today? To see just how good historic daylilies can be, why not grow a few yourself? A delightful compendium of 40 plants from around the world, The Botanical Treasury tells the story of each one through a fascinating mix of botanical illustrations, letters sent to Kew from plant hunters, and reprinted extracts from botanical periodicals. The book also includes forty reproduced prints of featured plants which can be framed — the icing on the cake of this tremendous and fascinating collection.

Handsomely illustrated with historical images and newly commissioned photography, A Garden for the President explores not only the relationship between the White House and its landscape but also the evolution of its design; the public and private uses. Arthur J.

Some 80 works selected from the 16, Mellon collected are on display, ranging from a book illustration to a print by Picasso and beyond. As you may remember from previous articles here, Mellon redesigned the White House Rose Garden for President Kennedy, filling it in spring with masses of tulips. Imagine an entire wall in your home or office covered with a huge image of a Dutch flower painting from the s, or a bulb catalog cover from the s.

For less than you might expect, a British company called Surface View offers custom-sized murals of thousands of images ranging from antique maps and vintage comic books to abstract patterns and modern photography. Any good wallpaper hanger can install them for you, and shipping on most orders is free.

To see the plus botanical images they offer, go to surfaceview. Pull Up a Chair is the very personal and poetic blog of our good customer Barbara Mahany who launched it after nearly 30 years of writing for the Chicago Tribune. Cultivating Place is the public radio program of our long-time customer Jennifer Jewell of northern California. Every week since February, Jennifer has been exploring the central role gardening plays in human culture, much like art, music, and literature. On the first day of fall we had a great time talking about my childhood love of dinosaurs, our first gardens, why I launched OHG, great bulbs saved and lost, and more.

I was 30 years old when I started lecturing on landscape history, and 40 when I mailed my first tiny catalog of heirloom bulbs. I hate to leave you — and my crew, our growers, and the bulbs themselves. But time rushes on and my wife, who has sacrificed a lot to help me pursue this dream, has been patiently waiting for me to join her in the joys of a hard-earned rest.

Will there be changes? Old House Gardens would never have made it this far without the support of thousands of gardeners like you. Please be as good to the new owners as you have been to me. Please share it and help us spread the word about this mix-up. The preservation crew is aiming to restore the entire estate to the year Mr. Wright passed. Our goal is to attain the look and feel of I am so happy with the results in the gardens this year.

Thank you so much for your beautiful plants! Tiger lilies are native to Japan and were frequently depicted in Japanese art. The vast majority of the peonies grown today are cultivars of the Asian Paeonia lactiflora, the first of which arrived here from China in the early s causing a sensation. But long before the lactifloras appeared, the colonists were growing a completely different species, the European P.

Since they bloom a week or two earlier than the lactifloras , the officinalis clan came to be called May-flowering peonies. But times change, and as the Civil War faded in the past and hundreds of exciting new lactiflora peonies were introduced, the old officinalis peonies gradually fell out of fashion. Ancient, herbal, early-blooming, richly colored, and enduring — why not add P. How about settling down in the shade with a tall glass of something frosty and losing yourself in a great garden book this summer?

After a lifetime of gardening, year-old Penelope Hobhouse — who has written a dozen books and designed gardens for English royalty, the RHS, and Steve Jobs — listed her ten favorite garden books in the December issue of Gardens Illustrated. Perennials and Their Garden Habitats , R. Hansen and F. Could one of these be your next favorite garden book? On her death in , Choate bequeathed Naumkeag to the Trustees of Reservations, the leading Massachusetts nonprofit devoted to scenic and historic sites.

In an anonymous donor promised the Trustees a million dollars to restore the entire landscape — but only if they could match that donation and finish the enormous project by this summer. Against all odds, they did! Read the whole inspiring story and see the results in the spring issue of Preservation. The two of them, by the way, look great together in bouquets.

I remember Marta telling me way back in when she first ordered bulbs from us that she was working on a book about Emily Dickinson — and did I know that Dickinson loved hyacinths, she asked. Like most people, I had no idea that flowers ever grew at The Rock — until when an order for some of our dahlias and glads arrived here from that infamous island in San Francisco Bay. Alcatraz, I soon learned, has a long, complex history, and gardens have been a part of most of it.

Some were public plantings tended by prisoners while others were the home gardens of the warden and guards who lived there with their families.

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Dick talked about the herculean effort to clear decades of weeds and overgrowth and the excitement of rediscovering paths, retaining walls, and a surprising array of garden plants that survived amid the ruins. Gardening has always been an important part of Southern Living , and this issue is no exception. There is so much to learn. Everyone who has ever gardened since Adam and Eve has killed a plant. Today, with the help of the Garden Conservancy, the gardens are being restored to their former glory. Ely wrote that dahlias, glads, cannas, and red salvia were the only pattern-bedding plants she grew at Meadowburn.

Unfortunately by the time Quill Teal-Sullivan was hired four years ago to guide the restoration of the gardens, the names of all had been lost. We sent her tubers of both so she could grow them side by side to compare foliage, height, bloom-time, and other details — which is the only way to be certain about an identification — and we put her in touch with nearby dahlia experts who could visit Meadowburn and offer their insights.

Judging this rich amount of material occupied the gathered experts for some considerable time, and it was by no means an easy walkover for the winner; and yet, when Miss Jane Cowl [one of the most famous actresses of that era], who honored the exhibition with her presence on the first day, was invited to select out of the seedlings the one that should be named for her, she unhesitatingly and almost instantaneously decided on the same bloom that the judges had already selected for the big award. Miss Cowl, of course, selected the bloom that pleased her most without any regard to its comparative distinctiveness and other qualifications and standards by which the experts must measure any newcomer.

There is, however, much satisfaction to be had in the fact that the popular favor and expert judgment in this instance, at all events, did coincide. See what Miss Cowl and the experts liked so much here , and if you decide you have to have it, be sure to order soon! From a large tuft of [normally pink] A. Learn more from our friend Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp, and look for it online or in local garden centers this spring.

Unlike broken tulips whose stripes are caused by a benign virus, broken-color iris are irregularly splashed with contrasting colors due to a genetic mutation. Gardening is a creative act, and plants can be amazingly beautiful, so is it any surprise that artists are often gardeners — or should I say that gardeners are often artists? Written to accompany a traveling exhibit organized by art historian and avid gardener Anna O. Marley of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the book focuses on artists from the Northeast and the Philadelphia area which has had a rich gardening tradition for centuries.

If not, add the book to your holiday wish list and you can enjoy it in the comfort of your own home all winter long. Saw it decades ago and fell in love with it. Thank you for considering my request. Being soft-hearted souls, we said yes, and when she replied, Gaye told us this story:. Not even 25 years old but with degrees almost in hand, my husband and I arrived in Ruston that year to teach literature me and history at Louisiana Tech.

We found a sweet little s house on a shady street that had belonged to the mother of the chair of the Interior Design department. We felt like grown-ups! I marked them and vowed to dig one or two in the fall. I searched ever after for those quiet creamy bulbs. More recently, whenever you did offer moschatus I ordered too late. For example, the Dutch-grown N. Learn more here. The year-old, foot-tall oak tree that the University of Michigan dug up and moved has survived its first year in apparently good shape. The tree made national headlines last fall when it was moved to make way for an expansion to the Ross School of Business.

Read more here. He re-envisioned it as a flower-filled ceremonial space for welcoming foreign dignitaries, hosting major press conferences, and so on, and he enlisted the remarkable Bunny Mellon to turn his vision into reality. Mellon was a philanthropist, art collector, and avid amateur gardener. Her redesign featured an open lawn surrounded by boxwood-edged flower beds and four great saucer magnolias transplanted from the Tidal Basin.

No matter what your politics, this beautiful sampler deserves your vote! At Heritage Flower Farm in Mukwonago, Wisconsin, Betty Adelman grows over a thousand varieties of heirloom flowers and ships them to gardeners all across the country. Along with heirlooms from Acanthus to Zizia , Betty offers a few pre-planned gardens such as the Emily Dickinson Garden with flowers mentioned in her poetry or pressed in her herbarium.

Treat yourself to a look at the Heritage Flower Farm website — and then please consider joining Betty and me as members of the year-old American Horticultural Society , publisher of the always excellent American Gardener magazine. Both are well worth your support. Two articles in the Wakefield and North of England Tulip Society newsletter gave me a deeper appreciation for both its history and its vigor.

It is not native to the UK but is naturalized here, though how it arrived is not known. It was a truly remarkable sight. In a second article, Anita Irehoim writes about the Florentine in Sweden. Florence and Bologna are 50 miles apart. Dig and turn the soil upside down! It makes some sense since it is. Of the varieties he may have had in the garden, only about 40 remain today — one of which is T.

The garden was designed by Bunny Mrs. Paul Mellon, a good friend of the First Lady who went on to spend the rest of her long life — she died last year at the age of — gardening, designing gardens, and collecting rare garden books at her Virginia estate, Oak Spring Farms.

One of our all-time best-selling bulbs is our true, American-grown Campernelle narcissus. And have fun! Weeds, yes, but why would anyone want to destroy earthworms? Brine and wood ashes kill weeds by making the soil too salty and alkaline for them, and tobacco kills worms just like it does humans. Tobacco water and tobacco powder were commonly used as pesticides well into the 20th century, as was tobacco smoke in greenhouses.

Although its raw corms are poisonous, Native Americans learned to neutralize the poison by roasting or drying them for six months, after which they could be peeled and ground into a flour for making bread. The year after fruiting or when conditions are challenging, plants often change back to male until they can build up the strength to set seed again. This multi-talented native bulb is easy to grow in light shade, and you can order it now for fall planting. Although beautiful enough to be a coffee-table book, The General in the Garden is also rich in information.

The second details the ever-changing restoration of the landscape from to And the third details the meticulous research and archaeology that led to the recent recreation of the Upper Garden — which for most of the 20th century was a formal rose garden — into three enormous, utilitarian vegetable beds bordered by relatively narrow flower beds.

As one of the most important American landscapes to survive from the 18th century, Mount Vernon has long deserved a book of this caliber. Whether you simply page though it enjoying the illustrations or read every word including the footnotes, The General in the Garden will give you a deeper appreciation for this extraordinary landscape, for the difficult art of landscape preservation, and for Washington himself, a man who was not only the father of his country but a gifted landscape designer and an unabashed tree-lover.

Hello to all of our friends at the first of what is hoped will become an annual series of conferences on Midwestern garden history! The June event at Bath Farm and Village north of Akron features lectures by experts such as Denise Adams and tours of historic landscapes such as the magnificent Stan Hywet. We applaud organizer Kathie VanDevere and hope the conference is great success! Absolutely not. Some plants like peonies and apples will live for a very long time, even in a totally abandoned garden, while other plants like dahlias and tomatoes will disappear most places unless someone saves, stores, and replants them every year.

This means that year-old peonies are relative youngsters compared to the many that survive from or even years ago, while year-old dahlias are already hard to find, making them, in effect, much older. The whole world loves heirloom bulbs. Or at least gardeners in 51 different countries are reading our newsletter. How cool is that? In addition to 22, subscribers here in the US, we also have 87 readers in garden-loving Japan, 61 in nearby Canada, 55 in France Quelle surprise! Introduced from Mexico in , dahlias became one of the most popular plants of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

To celebrate the ADS centennial, here are four easy ways to add at least one of these incredible flowers to your garden this spring:. Grow one of our easy heirloom dahlia samplers, Dreamy Dahlias or Endless Bouquets. Enjoy the thousands of antique catalog images the Library has posted at Flickr. Be sure to click on your favorite images to see others from the same catalog — and if you find one you think would be perfect for our next catalog, let us know!

And what a wealth it is! Congratulations, Sara, and thank you! With his digital camera and hours of painstaking work in Photoshop, Meeuws creates images that both mimic the centuries-old masterpieces and yet are strikingly new. Like the original artists, he starts by creating images of individual flowers — and insects, snails, and so on — and then later draws from this digital stockpile to assemble his bouquets.

When the original paintings were created in the s, these tulips — and many of the other flowers depicted in them — were so new and rare that it was actually cheaper to buy a painting of them than the flowers themselves. I hoped so, too, but I knew that was a very long shot. Tens of thousands of dahlias have been introduced, many look a lot alike, and very few have been preserved.

But in late summer we got a happy surprise:. Every summer it would reward us with the most beautiful lavender blooms. We never knew its name but we always loved to see it bloom. After he died in I tried to keep his flowers growing for my mamaw. Over the years, though, most all were lost except for the lavender dahlia and two old peonies and a little iris that just kept multiplying.

I was really sad to see it gone. That summer I spent a lot of time at the little white house on the hill, remembering how much fun we had visiting there when I was a kid. Then I started looking everywhere I could think of, hoping to find the lavender dahlia. I bought several that looked right, but when they bloomed they were never the one.

What a reward! I know Mamaw and Papaw are smiling down from heaven. Interestingly enough, that unusually hardy dahlia came to us from Joyce Dowell who got it from her grandmother in Scottsville, Kentucky — which, as the crow flies, is just miles away from where your grandparents lived.

If your garden needs a vintage touch in lovely pastel hues of bronze and lilac, look no further. When she married the Earl of Mayo in and moved to the family estate outside of Dublin, Geraldine Ponsonboy knew little about gardening. Given just 20 minutes to get out before her house was burned, Geraldine set her chickens free and saved her diary. Have you ever seen a flower show devoted entirely to gladiolus? The show included big displays by commercial growers such as the leading glad hybridizer of the era A. Vos with mood lighting and what looks like wisteria dangling from the ceiling , as well as a room full of glads grown by local amateurs.

The images are part of a larger online exhibit of garden photos by a s club member. Francis King. Since the works are all discussed within the context of their times, the end result is a bibliographic history of botany and gardening. I especially liked the one on 19th-century nursery and seed catalogs what a surprise, eh? That said, I believe readers with anything more than a passing interest in the history of plants and gardens would love to get Flora Illustrata for their own library this holiday season.

A year-old tree here in Ann Arbor got an early Christmas present recently: a new lease on life. Standing six stories tall, the majestic bur oak started life long before Ann Arbor was founded in Instead of cutting it down, the university decided to dig and move the oak about feet. Last summer, workers from a Texas firm that specializes in moving large trees dug a trench 40 feet in diameter to define the edges of the mammoth root ball and spur additional root growth.

Next they drove a series of pipes under the tree to create a platform to support the roughly ,pound mass during the move. In late October they returned to sever the roots under the pipes and insert heavy-duty air bladders that were then inflated to lift the tree so they could position a pair of huge industrial transporters under it. You can learn more by watching a short animated video, viewing dozens of photos , and reading an excellent article in the UM student newspaper. Our good customer Sara Van Beck of Atlanta has been a tireless explorer and advocate of heirloom daffodils for many years.

The page booklet can be downloaded for free from the website of the Georgia Daffodil Society. Most of the daffodils in it are hardy well into zone 5, and it starts off with universally helpful sections on Characteristics of Historic Daffodils, Saving and Moving Daffodils, Rules for Rescuing, and Taking Photos for Identification. And remember, all of our daffodils for the South are now on sale! The old man is dead and his son has dug up all flowers to grow vegetables. Saved just in the nick of time one might say!

Published in , it was the first by Amy Stewart who went on to write best-sellers such as Flower Confidential and The Drunken Botanist and co-found the popular Garden Rant blog. We just occupy it. Gardening taught me this. I moved onto this piece of land and knew immediately that someone had been there before me. The daffodil bulbs scattered along the fence, the ancient florabunda, the citrus trees, all pointed to a long-ago gardener with ambitious plans.

They were newcomers, too. Once, digging in the garden, I found a piece of stone, chipped into a crude blade. Someone was here long before me, crouched on a bare bluff overlooking the river, before the settlers arrived and colonized the rim of land around the bay. This piece of earth was never mine, and not just because I rented rather than owned it. It will remain here for the next generation, and the generation after that, and it will tolerate our pounding on it and digging into it the best it can.

It may be weedy and unkempt when you find it, but just wait. With their clusters of small, fragrant flowers, the group of daffodils known as tazettas have been popular for hundreds if not thousands of years. In Japan they long ago escaped gardens to make themselves at home in the wild, as described at botanyboy. Their odor is intense, but not unpleasant, and much more floral scented than the musty smell of N.

It is thought that it came from China centuries ago. In Japan it is found on roadsides, on rice paddy embankments, along rivers, and in vacant lots in both agricultural and urban environments. The commonly grown N. See the seven we offer here , and order a few now! On Sept. Once the most numerous bird species in America, passenger pigeons had numbered in the billions and played a critical role in ecosystems across the country. But with very few laws protecting them, relentless hunting and habitat destruction led to their mass extinction. Organizations across the country are marking this poignant centennial with special exhibits, events, and publications.

These oaks were originally part of a Midwestern ecosystem known as oak openings — essentially prairie or savanna under trees — which is now as endangered as the pigeons once were. To learn more about these remarkable birds and centennial events in your state, go to passengerpigeon. The daffodils gracing our new cover first appeared on the Sutton and Sons bulb catalog of They emailed us a scan of the original, and Mike and I went to work on it in Photoshop. You can read what we did and see the transformation here. We hope you enjoy it. Their adaptive reuse of the barn as a business space received an award from the Historic District Commission in For your own copy, visit nicolasbooks.

In this newspaper column later collected in Through the Garden Gate , she weaves together her own observations with those of fellow daffodil-lovers from almost a century before:. Hartland, an Irish nurseryman, said white trumpets were a specialty at Temple Hill, his place near Cork, and he listed nine varieties. Best when grown in shade and grass.

The trumpet is distinctly yellow though very pale, at first, and the segments are fawn color. The second day it lifts its bowed head to a horizontal position, and both trumpet and perianth become silver white. It has a delicate fragrance. Miss Curry — some years dead — used to hunt them up from old Irish gardens, and a small club of three or four of us used to share them. I made some attempt to discover their history, and came to the conclusion that Irish religious houses must have had some connection with Spain and Portugal — the focus of the white species.

Although I miss the charming look of the old site by Mike Unser, a major hero of historic iris , the revised site offers a lot more information. The photos are crucial to help identify some of these older gems, and to preserve the knowledge base for generations to come. In , the eminent London author John Evelyn wrote a long list of Directions for the Gardiner at Says-Court , and despite modern chemicals and technology his simple advice for controlling weeds is still essential:.

The late Carl Amason, founder of the Arkansas Daffodil Society and a great mentor for me when I first got interested in old daffodils 30 years ago, offered an intriguing answer in the March edition of The Daffodil Journal. Native to Spain and Portugal, N. In her fine A Passion for Daylilies , Sydney Eddison tells of its breeder, a man who saw the possibilities for beauty in a form that everyone else at that time was scorning. She writes:. Bechtold on his Colorado property nine miles south of Denver.

He had chosen this location for its beautiful setting with a view of the Rockies and for the stream which would provide water for his numerous horticultural enthusiasms and experiments. As a boy, young LeMoine may have found the name a burden, but it proved suitable after all. He grew up to love plants and soon became involved in hybridizing. His earliest love affair was with dahlias. Later, he embraced gladioli, peonies, irises, and even lilacs, and then he discovered daylilies. In fact, he found so much pleasure in this new hobby that it often took precedence over his music business, and for this, fanciers of the spider daylily can be grateful.

But who was Mrs. George Darwin? Wikipedia offers a short biography along with a charming portrait of her dressed all in white, like her namesake iris. Philadelphia-born Martha du Puy — who was always known as Maud — met her husband while visiting relatives in England. George was the son of the great Charles Darwin and a noted astronomer at Cambridge where the young couple became lifelong friends with Foster.

Gardening in the area started some 10, years ago when the Nacogdoches tribe cultivated beans, sunflowers, and tobacco there, laying the foundation for the most advanced Native American culture in Texas. With the curiosity of a scientist and the writing skills of a master story-teller, Amy Stewart is one of my favorite authors. They were not the first — Greek and Roman writings mention it — but their perfumes, cordials, and powders contained liberal doses of this rare and precious substance. Perfumers and distillers would also not have understood why the rhizomes had to dry for two to three years before they become effective as a fixative.

We now know that it takes that long for a slow oxidation process to occur,. Most of the orris is either I. Florentina , grown in Morocco, China, and India. Then alcohol is used to extract an absolute, which is. Its popularity in perfume is due to the fact that it not only holds the fragrance in place but clings to the skin as well. It also happens to be a very common allergen, which explains why allergy sufferers might be sensitive to cosmetics and other fragrances — as well as gin.

Although the focus of her earlier book was plants thank you very much , in her new book, American Home Landscapes : A Design Guide to Creating Period Styles, Denise and her co-author Laura Burchfield present a lavishly illustrated history of how the design and constructed features of our yards — fencing, paving, furniture, etc.

Maybe best of all, though, are the many illustrations and plans drawn from a wealth of historic sources. Born in , Potter was a shy girl with a love of nature who grew up to chart her own path, self-publishing her first book, The Tale of Peter Rabbit, becoming a celebrated author and preservationist, marrying at 47, and gardening with enthusiasm. Although the hero of her best-loved book is a rabbit — and the bad guy was the gardener — clearly Potter was one of us. The historic Nichols Arboretum Peony Garden at the University of Michigan received a huge boost recently when the last surviving grandchild of the original donor gave a half-million dollars to help fund its ongoing restoration.

The Peony Garden was established in the s when W. Upjohn, founder of the Upjohn pharmaceutical company, gave the university hundreds of peonies from his private collection. The past is always present, as an email from our good customer Susan Wineberg reminded us recently. Although I knew foolscap was some kind of old paper, I had to look it up online to learn that it refers to a size, 8.

The letter was written by nurseryman Samuel B. Noble who in was selling plants — including many of the same bulbs we sell today — just a few blocks down the street from us here in Ann Arbor. My supply of hardy shrubbery and ornamental trees is also small, as well as bulbous roots. In my research I found a book written by Ms. Shaw, The Library of Work and Play: Gardening and Farming , in which she recommends planting these two specific bulbs, so I thought it would be a good way to commemorate this special occasion. I was elated to find them both at Old House Gardens. Thank you! Time-tested daffodils were among the biggest award-winners at daffodil shows across the country this past spring.

Although ADS awards are based on the perfection of individual flowers, not overall garden-worthiness, and the most commonly grown varieties tend to win the most awards, you might like to add some of these award-winners to your garden this fall. This past spring, 99 different cultivars won awards in the Historic section, and six were among the top 21 award-winners:.

A friend sent us a notecard recently with a striking image of tulips, Roman hyacinths, and crown imperial, all worked out in semi-precious stones. Dating to the second half of the s, the artwork is an example of pietra dura, an expensive, mosaic-like inlay made with thin slabs of stones such as jasper, malachite, and lapis lazuli. See it here. It is natural for gardeners to believe in immortality, for in the midst of flower death they see life patiently brooding.

Good gardeners also are always young in spirit, for their minds are fixed on spring when others feel only the bitter sting of winter. We have little faith in a calendar prophesy but we believe the report of the gladsome crocus and the pale, wan snowdrop. It seems to garden lovers that there is magic power in the breath of the first bulbs that drives away icy winter — something like the power in the cross that deprives the Prince of Evil of his strength.

The flight of the blue bird across a garden is a wonderful thing; so also is the rush of blue scillas along the garden path. Swallows come not more swiftly than the crocus, and the star of Bethlehem leads the way to new hope. The pure white fritillaria is like a sweet memory of snow, while the beautiful muscari dots the grass, a forerunner of summer skies. Starting in the s, Chicago businessman Jack Ellsworth and his wife Elsie built a monumental terraced garden next to their summer home on the shores of Lake Kabetogama, deep in the wilderness of what is now Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota.

At its peak in the early s the garden included 62 rock-edged beds planted with thousands of lilies and other flowers and ornamented by rock sculptures. When the Ellsworths left Lake Kabetogama in , the forest soon began reclaiming their garden. Photos from the s , though, showed the garden ablaze with thousands of tiger lilies, and after we confirmed the identity of these incredibly tough lilies, the Park Service ordered more to replant in the garden a couple of years ago. Stout [the pioneering daylily hybridizer], selected and named this daylily after her husband, Theron Strong.

I look forward to a garden of Therons! Intrigued, we turned to Google and discovered an obituary for the remarkable Mrs. Stout, at his invitation. As for Mrs. Check out our photos here — or order it now for delivery in April and enjoy it in your own garden next summer. Our house and office, for example, are in the Old West Side Historic District, and thousands of houses across the US are also in historic districts — not historical districts. People collect antiques, we have antique shops, etc.

Oldies and Old-Timers — The dahlia and gladiolus societies sometimes use these terms, but as much as I like their informal, approachable tone, I think they discount the importance of older varieties. Heritage — This is often used in England and Canada to describe historic resources such as buildings, etc. It has the sense of something being handed down but with more of a community or national significance rather than just personal or family importance. This to me is the best word to describe what our bulbs are. Many fancy restaurants, for example, serve heirloom tomatoes, heirloom beets, and so on.

Of course there are many other words — old, old-fashioned, classic, retro, old-school, etc. Readers, I welcome your comments! We work hard to make sure our bulbs are right and our facts are straight. John Horsefield was a Lancashire handloom weaver, not a Scottish shoemaker. Thanks, Nick! No doubt gardeners have always gathered together informally to talk, learn from one another, and share the joys and pains of gardening, but the early 20th century saw the rise of garden clubs as we know them today.

Eventually local clubs banded together to promote gardening, conservation, and civic improvement, and this year marks the th anniversary of the founding of the Garden Club of America. So, to all 18, current GCA members in clubs across the country, congratulations and thank you! Best known today for his diary chronicling life in London from to , John Evelyn was a wide-ranging author who published books on everything from politics and theology to vegetarianism and gardening.

Then plunge your pots in a hot-bed temperately warm, and give them no water till they spring, and then set them under a south wall. In dry weather water them freely, and expect an incomparable flower in August. It is best to take them out of the pots, about the beginning of this month, and either to preserve them in dry sand, or to wrap them up in papers, and so put them in a box near the chimney. Deciding to abandon any of our heirlooms is always a painful process.

Of course you can help save these treasures, too. All you have to do is order one now for April delivery — and grow it. Fairy is perhaps the most fragrant of all, and Caprice and Madame Pacquitte have an especially delicious fragrance. For six more, see the Fragrance column in our Heirloom Iris Chart. Then do your nose a favor and order now for April delivery! The award-winning TV series tells the story of the intertwined lives of the aristocratic Crawley family and the servants who work for them. Although its name is a mouthful, and it came so close to extinction that only one gardener was still growing it, this dahlia was once hugely popular.

As the Scheepers catalog reported breathlessly:. Extremely strong grower, very free bloomer, splendid for exhibition and for the garden, it is of the greatest merit. Can you guess its name? See it here — and then maybe order it now for spring planting! The earliest American garden catalogs were simple broadsheets, single-page flyers of plant names and little else. Although some were mailed, most were posted locally as flyers still are today. The oldest survivor seems to be a broadsheet from the famous Prince nursery of Long Island which mostly lists scores of fruit trees.

As population moved west, many farmers and gardeners were separated from sources of seeds and of information, and catalogs provided both. At the same time, an expanding middle class moved to that other new invention, the suburbs, and took up gardening. The rising business in [ornamental seeds and plants]. In , seeds and cuttings in packages under eight ounces were, for the first time, accepted by the U. Two years later, more sweeping changes effectively created the mail-order business in plants.

Starting in First class was for letters, second class for newspapers and magazines, and third class, the cheapest rate, for other printed material, including catalogs. The new uniform postal rates now applied regardless of distance. What was even more important was that the new regulations specifically allowed packages containing up to four pounds of seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, and scions to be shipped as third-class mail.

Thirty years before other catalog retailers were able to send goods long distances at low prices, the postal service had helped the seed sellers and nurseries market to the nation. The grape-scented, lavender-blue iris known as I. Peeled by hand and dried for two to five years, they develop a violet-like scent and fixative properties that preserve the chemical structure of other fragrances, prolonging their aroma. Ground and distilled, a ton of dried rhizomes — known as orris root — yields 4. But there are many other reasons to grow this great old iris. A wild species found originally in Dalmatia [roughly the former Yugoslavia], Iris pallida appears somewhere in the family tree of most modern cultivars but it has none of their faults.

I prefer this lovely, deliciously scented hand-me-down to all other tall bearded irises. The same thing happens with new plants. It offered a reliable profusion of white flowers in spring, flaming fall color, relatively modest stature, fast growth, and tolerance of poor growing conditions, not to mention ease of nursery production. It took a decade or so for horticulturists and arborists to discover that the beautiful spring-flowering tree generally starts self-destructing at about 10 to 20 years old.

The narrow angle at which branches join the main trunk makes major branches particularly prone to breaking and splitting, especially when exposed to high winds or ice storms. Over time, and with the help of liberal distribution by birds, invasive seedlings sprouted in natural areas and along highways throughout the Northeast and Midwest. Now bits of wood from historic trees have helped scientists take a new look at years of human history. According to an article at ScienceMag.

With tree rings taken from living trees as a baseline, dendrochronologists work their way back in time, comparing overlapping samples to edge ever further into the past. The researchers worked out climate information the same way. First, they compared weather records collected over the past years with samples from living trees to see how temperature and moisture affected tree-ring growth. Then [they] looked at timbers from historic buildings, wood preserved in rivers or bogs, and samples from archaeological sites to push the record further back.

At times of social stability and prosperity. Daffodils blooming in fields or woods throughout the South often mark the sites of bygone houses, where they traditionally lined the front walk. These flowers also may have reminded Welty of Elizabeth Lawrence, who also preferred white daffodils. Our true, fall-planted Byzantine glads are graceful, brilliant, and winter hardy to zone 6 — but did you ever try baking bread with them?

Corn flag, which is called by some xiphos, sword, has a sword-like leaf whence its name. August A year ago we found out that his prostate cancer is incurable and he may only have another year or two left. He also remembers being taught by Mr. Boschman [the teacher and tulip collector who founded the Hortus].

My parents are both from Limmen [where the Hortus is located], and my mother told me about being paid twenty-five cents per bed for de-heading tulips after school. Blokker [the bulb grower who provided the land where Boschman and de Mol combined their collections into what became the Hortus Bulborum].

Just this afternoon, for the first time ever, we added to our web-only offerings an incredible treasure: the only double yellow hyacinth available anywhere in the world today. They have such a nice warm glow. Read the full article here — and congratulate yourself for being ahead of the curve! We learn a lot from our customers. It turns out the tiny Lizard peninsula — whose name comes from the Cornish word lezou or headland — is the southernmost point on the British mainland, jutting out into the sea off the coast of Cornwall.

Learn more at lizard-peninsula.

Thanks to the Gulf Stream, greater Cornwall is the warmest, sunniest part of England and this, along with its well-drained soils, has made it a major bulb-producing region for over a century. We stumbled upon this unusual investment tip in the Manual on the Iris by Nebraska nurseryman and minister Charles S. Raise a plenty of it and be rich. No investment can pay better. You build a new house at great expense and it begins to deteriorate from the moment you enter it. In a short time your beautiful furniture becomes second hand.

Beautify your grounds and double the value of your land. It makes a great difference whether your yard is a landscape of beauty or a pasture for pigs or a hospital for disabled machinery. Daylily buds, known as gum jum or golden needles, are used fresh or dried in many classic dishes, including hot and sour soup and moo shu pork. It was only fitting.

Kids Love Eating Purslane, Too

Eighty-four years ago in From a New Garden , Louisa Yeomans King, author of nine garden books and founder of the Garden Club of America, recommended quite a few bulbs that we still offer today — and the best time to order them:. This is gradually changing, though, as the best sites work to make their gardens more authentic and engaging.

This spring, for example, Anna De Cordova ordered a dozen of our heirloom dahlias, explaining:. A catbird is following me around Val-Kill supervising my every move. Thomas Jefferson was an avid gardener and his restored gardens at Monticello are a national treasure. Although the Center no longer publishes its annual journal, Twinleaf , dozens of its fascinating articles are free for the reading at the Monticello website.

Congratulations, Peter, and thank you! Mundane as it seems, manure was of the greatest concern to all four of them, for one of the reasons why yields in the United States of America were declining so drastically was the lack of manuring. Teasing apart the straw and dung, the American minister to the court at St.

In spring , in the midst of the Jay Treaty controversy, he had managed to find time to calculate precisely how many wagonloads of manure were needed to produce a healthy harvest of potatoes and dispatched instructions to Montpelier to cover the fields with dung. While other farmers let their cattle and hogs drop the nutritious dung far away from the plantations, Washington was the first American to build a stercorary — a covered dung depository where manure could be stored, aged, and mixed.

The multi-faceted event runs from May 19 through October 21 and will include paintings, photographs, films, concerts, lectures, poetry readings, a special app, and spectacular plantings. Naturally I am turning to you to see if you could help supply us with the dahlias from your extensive and wonderful list of plant material. Well, not specifically, but the importance of preserving cultivated plants has been officially recognized at the international level for the first time. Though preservation is our mission, every year bulbs drop out of our catalog for a variety of reasons.

Now you can find photos and information about many of these bulbs — including over a dozen dahlias, glads, and hyacinths, 38 daffodils, and 41 tulips — at our Back Soon or Lost Forever pages. There he would store the canvas overnight, enlisting the aid of friends to carry it the short distance to the Moulin to begin work each day.