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Family planning in China had its benefits, and its drawbacks. For example, it helped reduce the population by about million people in its first 20 years. Once the parent generation gets older, the children help take care of them, and the work is usually equally split among the siblings. In the s, due to the rapidly rising population, it launched the "Two Is Enough" campaign, which reduced the general birth rate through educational means.

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The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong , Hong Kong's national family planning association, [70] founded the International Planned Parenthood Federation with its counterparts in seven other countries. Family planning in India is based on efforts largely sponsored by the Indian government. India adds up to 1,, people to its population every 15 days. By the growth rate had declined to 0. UN's Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs says that between and , the total fertility number was 6. The projected level for Iran's to birth rate is fewer than two. In late July , Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei described Iran's contraceptive services as "wrong," and Iranian authorities are slashing birth-control programs in what one Western newspaper USA Today describes as a "major reversal" of its long standing policy.

Whether program cuts and high-level appeals for bigger families will be successful is still unclear. The sale of contraceptives was illegal in Ireland from until , when it was legalized with strong restrictions, later loosened. It has been argued that the resulting demographic dividend played a role in the economic boom in Ireland that began in the s and ended abruptly in the Celtic tiger was in part due to the legalisation of contraception in and subsequent decline in the fertility rate.

In agreement with the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Pakistan pledged that by it would provide universal access to family planning. Additionally, Pakistan's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper has set specific national goals for increases in family planning and contraceptive use. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union abortion rates have fallen considerably, but they are still higher than rates in many developed countries.

In the Philippines , the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of guarantees universal access to methods on contraception , fertility control, sexual education , and maternal care. While there is general agreement about its provisions on maternal and child health, there is great debate on its mandate that the Philippine government and the private sector will fund and undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices such as condoms , birth control pills , and IUDs , as the government continues to disseminate information on their use through all health care centers.

In , Thailand's government declared a population policy that would battle the country's rapid population growth rate. This policy set a 5-year goal to reduce Thailand's population growth rate from 3 percent to 2. Population control in Singapore spans two distinct phases: first to slow and reverse the boom in births that started after World War II ; and then, from the s onwards, to encourage parents to have more children because birth numbers had fallen below replacement levels. Despite widespread availability of contraceptives, almost half of pregnancies were unintended in Despite the availability of highly effective contraceptives, about half of U.

Clinics funded by Title X served 3. In , publicly funded contraceptive services helped women prevent 1. About 3 out of 10 women in the United States have an abortion by the time they are 45 years old. A paper found that parents' access to family planning programs had a positive economic impact on their subsequent children: " Using the county-level introduction of U. In Uzbekistan the government has pushed for uteruses to be removed from women in order to forcibly sterilize them.

There are many reasons as to why women do not use contraceptives.

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These reasons include logistical problems, scientific and religious concerns, limited access to transportation in order to access health clinics, lack of education and knowledge and opposition by partners, families or communities plus the fact that no one is able to control their fertility beyond basic behavior involving conception. Certain groups — including adolescents, unmarried people, the urban poor, rural populations, sex workers and people living with HIV also face a variety of barriers to family planning.

This can lead to higher rates of unintended pregnancy, increased risk of HIV and other STIs, limited choice of contraceptive methods, and higher levels of unmet need for family planning. For national, international, or local health programs involved in family planning, the use of standard indicators [95] is increasingly encouraged, to track barriers to effective family planning along with the efficacy, uptake, and provision of family planning services. September 26 is designated as World Contraception Day, devoted to raising awareness of contraception and improving education about sexual and reproductive health, with a vision of "a world where every pregnancy is wanted".

Some pro-life groups claim that the United Nations and World Health Organization advocate abortion as a form of family planning.

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The campaign to conflate contraception and abortion is rooted on the assertion that contraception ends, rather than prevents, pregnancy. This is due to the notion that preventing implantation implies an abortion, when considering fertilization as the initial moment of pregnancy. According to an amicus brief submitted to the U. Supreme Court in October led by Physicians for Reproductive Health and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, a contraceptive method prevents pregnancy by interfering with fertilization, or implantation. Abortion, separate from contraceptives, ends an established pregnancy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Maternal health , Maternal death , and teenage pregnancy. Main article: Birth control. Main article: Assisted reproductive technology. See also: Family economics and Cost of raising a child. Main article: Fertility awareness. Main article: Forced sterilization. Main article: Pregnancy from rape. Main article: Birth control in Africa. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. June Main article: Family planning policy. See also: Two-child policy. Main article: Family planning in India.

Main article: Family planning in Iran. Main article: Contraception in the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Family planning in Pakistan. See also: Demographics of Russia. Main article: Family planning in Singapore. Main article: Birth control in the United States. Main article: Compulsory sterilization in Uzbekistan. Archived from the original on Retrieved Environmental Research Letters. California Department of Public Health. The Psychologist". Retrieved 27 May Fertility and Sterility. World Health Organization.

Adoption Exchange Association. Retrieved 21 April Archived from the original on 18 April M; Telfer, E. E; Anderson, R. A Human Reproduction Update. E Epidemiologic Reviews. In Hatcher, Robert A. Contraceptive technology 20th revised ed. New York: Ardent Media. United States. Osteopathic Family Physician. Brown University Health Education Website.

Brown University. Guttmacher Institute. United Nations. Published: World Health Organization, Studies in Family Planning. In Carpenter, R. Charli ed. Kumarian Press. Retrieved 6 July Halsey August The World Bank Economic Review. World Bank. Retrieved 12 August May New England Journal of Medicine. Nii-Amoo Dodoo; Alex C. Ezeh; Tom O. Owuor June Y Cultures of the World China.

Marshall Cavendish International. All Girls Allowed. Retrieved March 27, Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original PDF on 10 January Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 20 March Retrieved Feb 4, China Under Reform.

Philadelphia: Mason Crest Publishers. Socio-cultural dimensions of reproductive child health. APH Publishing. Archived Economic and Social Review. Archived from the original PDF on The Irish Times. Population Action International. The Washington Post.

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Retrieved 19 April Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Committee for the Analysis of Family Planning Programmes Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Clinics, ". Frost, Lori F. Frohwirth, Nakeisha Blades, Mia R.

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Clinics, " New York: Guttmacher Institute, Occasional Report. New York: Guttmacher Institute. Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. Retrieved 11 November October BBC World Service. Reproductive health. Compulsory sterilization Contraceptive security Genital integrity Circumcision controversies Genital modification and mutilation Intersex.

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Birth control Family planning Control Overpopulation Zero growth. Appropriate Environmental Sustainable. Conservation Crisis Efficiency Footprint Reclaimed. Sustainability accounting Sustainability measurement Sustainability metrics and indices Sustainability reporting Standards and certification Sustainable yield. Category Lists Science Studies Degrees. Description This book examines, for the first time, the history of the social, cultural, political and economic presence of the French in London, and explores the multiple ways in which this presence has contributed to the life of the city.

The capital has often provided a place of refuge, from the Huguenots in the 17th century, through the period of the French Revolution, to various exile communities during the 19th century, and on to the Free French in the Second World War. It also considers the generation of French citizens who settled in post-war London, and goes on to provide insights into the contemporary French presence by assessing the motives and lives of French people seeking new opportunities in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

It analyses the impact that the French have had historically, and continue to have, on London life in the arts, gastronomy, business, industry and education, manifest in diverse places and institutions from the religious to the political via the educational, to the commercial and creative industries.

Description After WWI, Britain faced a number of challenges as it sought to adapt to domestic conditions of mass democracy whilst maintaining its position in the empire in the face of national independence movements. As politicians at home and abroad sought to legitimise their position, new efforts were made to conceptualise nationality and citizenship, with attempts to engage the public using mass media and greater emphasis on governing in the public interest.

The book is an invaluable resource for scholars of British social, political and imperial history, as well as being of interest to the general reader. Title: Brazil: Essays on History and Politics. Description Published to mark his 80th birthday, this volume consists of seven essays by Leslie Bethell on major themes in modern Brazilian history and politics: Brazil and Latin America; Britain and Brazil ; The Paraguayan War ; The decline and fall of slavery ; The long road to democracy; Populism; The failure of the Left.

The essays are new, but they draw on book chapters and journal articles published mainly in Portuguese and public lectures delivered in the ten years since his retirement as founding Director of the University of Oxford Centre for Brazilian Studies in In an autobiographical Introduction Why Brazil? Professor Bethell describes how, from the most unlikely of backgrounds, he became a historian of Brazil and how he came to devote much of his long academic career to the promotion and development of Brazilian studies in UK and, to a lesser extent, US universities.

Leslie Bethell is one of the few great Brazilianists, as foreign scholars of Brazil are called, of his and subsequent generations. Brazilianists engage in scholarship that has breadth and depth; illuminate Brazil as an object of study, asking the most important questions that can be asked about the country; and give voice to Brazilian experiences and perspectives. Leslie Bethell has done these things during his long career, and he continues to do so, as this collection of his recent essays on Brazilian history and politics demonstrates.

Title: Dethroning historical reputations: universities, museums and the commemoration of benefactors.

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Description The campaigns in universities across the world to reject, rename and remove historic benefactions have brought the present into collision with the past. In the United States, memorials to leaders of the Confederacy in the American Civil War and to other slaveholders have been the subject of intense dispute. Should we continue to honour benefactors and historic figures whose actions are now deemed ethically unacceptable? How can we reconcile the views held by our ancestors with those we now hold today? Should we even try, acknowledging, in the words of the novelist L. The essays in this interdisciplinary collection are drawn from a conference at the Institute of Historical Research in the University of London.

Historians, fundraisers, a sociologist and a museum director examine these current issues from different perspectives, with an introductory essay by Sir David Cannadine, president of the British Academy. Together they explore an emerging conflict between the past and present, history and ideology, and benefactors and their critics. Title: Gender and historiography: Studies in the earlier middle ages in honour of Pauline Stafford. Description The chapters in this volume celebrate the work of Pauline Stafford, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced research in the fields of both Anglo-Saxon history and the history of medieval women and gender.

Ranging across the period, and over much of the old Carolingian world as well as Anglo-Saxon England, they deal with such questions as the nature of kingship and queenship, fatherhood, elite gender relations, the transmission of property, the participation of women in lordship, slavery and warfare, and the nature of assemblies. Gender and historiography presents the fruits of groundbreaking research, inspired by Pauline Stafford's own interests over a long and influential career. Title: Healthcare in Ireland and Britain from Voluntary, regional and comparative perspectives.

Description This volume explores developments in health and social care in Ireland and Britain during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The central objectives are to highlight the role of voluntarism in healthcare, to examine healthcare in local and regional contexts, and to provide comparative perspectives. David Cannadine. Description This volume contains selected papers from a major conference held in October to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the setting up of the Centre for Metropolitan History at the IHR, and the contribution of Professor Derek Keene to the Centre, the IHR and the wider world of scholarship.

Title: Magna Carta: history, context and influence. Description This book examines the history and influence of Magna Carta in British and American history. In a series of essays written by notable British specialists, it considers the origins of the document in the political and religious contexts of the thirteenth century, the relevance of its principles to the seventeenth century disputes that led to the Civil War, the uses made of Magna Carta to justify the American Revolution, and its inspiration of the radical-democratic movement in Britain in the early nineteenth century.

The introductory essay considers the celebration of Magna Carta's th anniversary in in relation to ceremonials and remembrance in Britain in general. Given as papers to a joint conference of British and Chinese historians in Beijing in , these essays provide a clear and insightful overview of the origins and impact of a medieval document that has shaped the history of the world. Medieval merchants and money: Essays in honour of James L. Title: Medieval merchants and money: Essays in honour of James L.

Description This volume contains selected essays in celebration of the scholarship of the medieval historian Professor James L. The essays address a number of different questions in medieval economic and social history, as the volume looks at the activities of merchants, their trade, legal interactions and identities, and on the importance of money and credit in the rural and urban economies. Title: Octavia Hill, social activism and the remaking of British society. Description This volume reassesses the life and work of Octavia Hill, housing reformer, open space campaigner, co-founder of the National Trust, founder of the Army Cadet Force, and the first woman to be invited to sit on a royal commission.

In her lifetime, if not a household name, she was widely regarded as an authority on a broad range of acknowledged social problems, particularly housing and poverty. Yet despite her early pre-eminence, subsequent attempts by family members to keep her memory alive, and the remarkable success of the institutions which she helped to found, Hill fell from public favour in the twentieth century. The fourteen chapters in this book will help to provide a more nuanced portrait of Hill and her work in a broader context of social change, reflecting recent scholarship on nineteenth-century society in general, and on philanthropy and preservation, and women's role in them, in particular.

Description This volume is based on two international conferences held in and at Ariano Irpino, and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. It contains essays by leading scholars in the field. Like the conferences, the volume seeks to enhance interdisciplinary and international dialogue between those who work on the Normans and their conquests in northern and southern Europe in an original way. It has as its central theme issues related to cultural transfer, treated as being of a pan-European kind across the societies that the Normans conquered and as occurring within the distinct societies of the northern and southern conquests.

These issues are also shown to be an aspect of the interaction between the Normans and the peoples they subjugated, among whom many then settled.